“OUT OF THE BOTTOMLESS PIT” AND OUR "OXYGEN" DEPLETED PLANETby S.N.Strutt  © Oct  2014  

 (AVAILABLE as a paper-back and on KINDLE at AMAZON:-

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INTRODUCTION     

(Originally written July 9th 2016, and re-written 16/02/17- by S.N.Strutt)

I stated that I would investigate, if it was true that we used to have a lot more oxygen in our atmosphere in the past, and that "lack of OXYGEN" could possibly be the cause of many modern sicknesses, or at the very least exacerbating many of these conditons?

Well I certainly found plenty of shocking evidence, that the OXYGEN LEVELS on our planet are decreasing at an alarming & dangerous rate, whilst foolish GLOBAL WARMISTS worry about insignificant CO2 (0.02% of the atmospheric gases, compared to 19+% Oxygen, which you will see is dangerously LOW!) See for yourselves in the following comprehensive article on the topic by expert Dr. Mae-Wan Ho

 O2 Dropping Faster than CO2 Rising

Implications for Climate Change Policies

New research shows oxygen depletion in the atmosphere accelerating since 2003, coinciding with the biofuels boom; climate policies that focus exclusively on carbon sequestration could be disastrous for all oxygen-breathing organisms including humans

Dr. Mae-Wan Ho

Threat of oxygen depletion

Mention climate change and everyone thinks of CO2 increasing in the atmosphere, the greenhouse effect heating the earth, glaciers melting, rising sea levels, floods, hurricanes, droughts, and a host of other environmental catastrophes. Climate mitigating policies are almost all aimed at reducing CO2, by whatever means.

Within the past several years, however, scientists have found that oxygen (O2) in the atmosphere has been dropping, and at higher rates than just the amount that goes into the increase of CO2 from burning fossil fuels, some 2 to 4-times as much, and accelerating since 2002-2003 [1-3]. Simultaneously, oxygen levels in the world’s oceans have also been falling [4] (see Warming Oceans Starved of Oxygen, SiS 44).

It is becoming clear that getting rid of CO2 is not enough;

Oxygen has its own dynamic and the rapid decline in atmospheric O2 must also be addressed. Although there is much more O2 than CO2 in the atmosphere - 20.95 percent or 209 460 ppm of O2 compared with around 380 ppm of CO2 – humans, all mammals, birds, frogs, butterfly, bees, and other air-breathing life-forms depend on this high level of oxygen for their well being [5] Living with Oxygen (SiS 43).

In humans, failure of oxygen energy metabolism is the single most important risk factor for chronic diseases including cancer and death.

‘Oxygen deficiency’ is currently set at 19.5percent in enclosed spaces for health and safety [6], below that, fainting and death may result.

The simultaneous decrease in ocean oxygen not only threatens the survival of aerobic marine organisms, but is symptomatic of the slow-down in the ocean’s thermohaline ‘conveyor belt’ circulation system that transports heat from the tropics to the poles,(THIS ITSELF COULD TRIGGER AN ICE-AGE) overturns surface layers of into the deep and vice versa, redistributing nutrients and gases for the ocean biosphere, and regulating rainfall and temperatures on the landmasses.

This dynamical system is highly nonlinear, and small changes could make it fail altogether, with disastrous runaway effects on the climate [7] (Global Warming & then the Big Freeze, SiS 20). More importantly, it could wipe out the ocean’s phytoplankton that’s ultimately responsible for splitting water to regenerate oxygen for the entire biosphere, on land and in the sea [4]. Global CO2 records go back more than 50 years [8], but O2 measurement in combination with CO2 goes back barely two decades [9], and is already giving important information on the size of the carbon sink in the ocean relative to the land. For one thing, O2 and CO2 have very different solubility in seawater; while 99 percent of the O2 remains in the atmosphere, 98 percent of the CO2 is in seawater.

Decrease in atmospheric O2 has been detected in stations around the world for the past decade, a consistent downward trend that has accelerated in recent years.

The largest fall in O2 was observed in the study of Swiss research team led by Francesco Valentino at University of Bern, for data collected at high altitude research stations in Switzerland and France

The researchers speculated that the large decrease in atmospheric oxygen since 2003 could have been the result of oxygen being taken up by the ocean, either due to a cooling of water in the North Atlantic, or water moving northwards from the tropic cooling, both of which would increase the water’s ability to take up more oxygen. However, it would require unrealistic cooling to account for the change in O2concentration. And all the indications are that the ocean waters have warmed since records began

O2 is decreasing faster than can be accounted for by the rise in CO2. Furthermore, the decrease is not uniform throughout the entire period; instead it is much steeper between 2002 and 2005 at both stations, and is not accompanied by any change in the trend of CO2 increase. This sharp acceleration in the downward trend of atmospheric O2 from 2002-2003 onwards in Ireland and The Netherlands is in accord with the findings in Switzerland and France [1]. And this cannot be explained by a realistic increase in fossil fuel use, or oxygen uptake by cooler ocean waters; if anything, oxygen level in the oceans has also been falling [4]. So where and what is this oxygen sink that is soaking up oxygen?

Thus, the expansion of agriculture and grazing during the 20th century has probably caused a decrease in the oxidative ratio of the plant biomass within these disturbed ecosystems. Using several simple models, the researchers showed that, indeed, small changes in Rab could lead to substantial decreases in atmospheric O2.  

Another research team has raised the possibility that reactive nitrogen produced in making artificial fertilizers for agriculture could also be tying up more oxygen in plant tissue, soil organic matter and oceans in the form of nitrates [13].

This includes wide-spread deforestation and replacement of woody vegetation with pastures and crops in the tropics, an increase in fire activity and tree mortality and increasing the abundance of deciduous tree species and herbaceous plants in the boreal (northern) regions. Globally, this includes an increase in invasive species and increased disturbance of agricultural soils by plowing and grazing during the 20th century.

Change in land use, and increased oxidation of nitrogen could explain the long term steady decline in atmospheric O2, and may well also account for the sharp acceleration of the downward trend since 2002 and 2003.

These years happen to coincide with record rates of deforestation. In Brazil, 10 000 square miles were lost mainly to pasture land, soybean plantations and illegal logging, a 40 percent rise over the previous year [14]. Massive deforestation has continued in the Amazon and elsewhere, spurred by the biofuels boom [15]; it is estimated that nearly 40 000 ha of the world’s forests are vanishing every day.

The crucial role of forests and phytoplankton [4] in oxygenating the earth shows how urgent it is to take oxygen accounting seriously in climate policies. Reductionist accounting for CO2 alone is insufficient, and even grossly misleading and dangerous.

A case in point is the proposal of the International Biochar Initiative (IBI). ‘Biochar’ is charcoal produced to be buried in the soil that IBI has been promoting worldwide over the past several years [16] as a means of sequestering carbon from the atmosphere to save the climate and enhance soil fertility. It involves planting fast growing tree and various other crops on hundreds of millions of hectares of ‘spare land’ mostly in developing countries, to be harvested and turned into charcoal in a process that could produce crude oil and gases as low grade fuels. There are many excellent arguments against this initiative [17], but the most decisive is that it will certainly further accelerate deforestation and destruction of other natural ecosystems (identified as ‘spare land’). In the process, it could precipitate an oxygen crisis from which we would never recover [18] (Beware the Biochar Initiative, SiS 44).

References

1. Valentino FL, Leuenberger M, Uglietti C and Staburm P. Measurements and trend analysis of O2, CO2 and D13C of CO2 from high altitude research station Junfgraujoch, Switzerlnd – a comparison with the observations from the remote site Puy de Dôme, France. Science of the Total Environment 2008, 203-10.

2. Sirignano C, Neubert REM, Jeijer HAJ and Rődenbeck C. Atmospheric oxygen and carbon dioxide observations from two European coastal stations 2000-2005: continental influence trend changes and APO climatology. Atmos Chem Phy Discuss 2008, 8, 20113-54.

3. Tohjima Y, Muai H, Machida T, Nojiri Y. Gas-chromatographic measurements of the atmospheric oxygen/nitrogen ratio at haterumna island and Cape Ochi-ishi, Japan. Geophys Res Lett 2003, 30, 1653, doi:10.1029/2003FLO17282

4. Joos F. Trends in Marine Dissolved Oxygen: Implications for Ocean Circulation Changes and the Carbon Budget. EOS 2003, 84, 197-204.

5. Stramma L, Johnson GC, Sprintal J and Mohrholz V. Expanding oxygen-minimum zones in the tropical oceans. Science 2008, 320, 655-8.

6. Ho MW. Living with oxygen. Science in Society 43 (in press).

7. Oxygen deficiency hazards (ODH) Manual 5064, Fermilab, Revised 05/2009,  http://www-esh.fnal.gov/FESHM/5000/5064.pdf

8. Ho MW. Global warming & then the big freeze. Science in Society 20, 28-29, 2003.

9. 50th anniversity of the global carbon dioxide record symposium and celebration, Kona, Hawaii, 28-30 November 2007, http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/co2conference/background.html

10. Manning AC, Keelilng RF, Paplawsky WJ, Katz LE, McEvoy EM and Atwood CG. Atmospheric oxygen in the 1990s from a global flask sampling network: trends and variability pertaining to the carbon cycle. Draft 29 January 2003, http://bluemoon.ucsd.edu/publications/mip/manning.pdf

11. Battle M, Fletcher SM, Bender ML, Keeling RF, et al. Atmospheric potential oxygen: new observations and their implications for some atmospheric and oceanic models. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 2006, GB1010.

12. Randerson J T, Masiello C A, Still C J, Rahn T, Poorter H and Field C B. Is carbon within the global terrestrial biosphere becoming more oxidized? Implications for trends in atmospheric O2, Glob Change Biol  2006. 12, 260–71.

13. Ciais P, Manning A C, Reichstein M, Zaehle S, and Bopp L. Nitrification amplifies the decreasing trends of atmospheric oxygen and implies a larger land carbon uptake, Global Biogeochem Cy 2007, 21, GB2030, doi:10.1029/2006GB002799, 2007.

14. Rain Forest is losing ground faster in Amazon, photos show”, Tony Smith, The New York Times, 27 June 2003, http://www.mongabay.com/external/record_amazon_deforestation_2002.htm#1

15.  “Environment: Biofuels boom spurring deforestation”, Stephen Leahy, IPS, 21 May 2007, http://ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=37035

16. IBI Programs and Projects, International Biochar Initiative, accessed 3 August 2009, http://www.biochar-international.org/

17. Ernsting A and Rughani D. Climate geo-engineering with ‘carbon negative’ bioenergy, climate saviour or climate endgame? Biofuelwatch, November 2008, http://www.biofuelwatch.org.uk/docs/cnbe/cnbe.html

18. Ho MW. Beware the Biochar Initiative. Science in Society 44 (to appear).

 

SOURCE:- (http://www.i-sis.org.uk/O2DroppingFasterThanCO2Rising.php?comment=1)

RELATED:

According to the data Keeling has meticulously collected since1989 the world is running out of breathable airand the rate that it’s losing oxygen is now on the verge of accelerating

Scientists have painted a scenario that could account for mass extinctions from terrestrial oxygen depletion which would certainly lay the foundation for a rapid acceleration of oxygen depletion and the resulting mass death to follow—mass death on a planetary scale.(http://survivalacres.com/blog/oxygen-levels-are-dropping/)

The Pre-flood Atmosphere

There is evidence that the atmosphere enveloping the early earth was very different than it is today.

At one time the entire earth enjoyed a warm tropical environment and there was enhanced oxygen in the atmosphere. Organisms grew larger and lived longer as a result.

Many creationists have attributed this to a water vapor canopy that was created by God on the second day, the “waters above the firmament” (Genesis 1:7).

This theory holds that a “vast blanket of invisible water vapor, translucent to the light of the stars but productive of a marvelous greenhouse effect which maintained mild temperatures from pole to pole, thus preventing air-mass circulation and the resultant rainfall (Genesis 2:5).

It would certainly have had the further effect of efficiently filtering harmful radiation from space, markedly reducing the rate of somatic mutations in living cells, and, as a consequence, drastically decreasing the rate of aging and death.”(Morris, Henry, Scientific Creationism, 1984, p. 211.) Citing evidence of denser atmosphere in the past.

Morris postulated that this vapor layer could have dramatically increased the atmospheric pressure on the surface of the early earth, again contributing to a healthier environment (like a natural hyperbaric chamber).

Later the canopy would have collapsed in the form of rain (the “windows of heaven” in Genesis 7:11), contributing to the Flood water, and resulting in the dramatic drop-off in longevity after the deluge.

 

The water vapor canopy hypothesis would neatly explain yet another observed anomaly…too much water in Earth’s upper atmosphere. NASA satellites have confirmed far more hydroxyl in the hydrosphere than current models predict. The parent molecule of hydroxyl (OH) is water (H2O). Because ultraviolet radiation from the sun breaks down water in Earth’s upper atmosphere into hydroxyl and hydrogen, a large amount of water must have previously existed. Some have proposed a constant influx of mini-comets as a source for the mysterious water, but that theory has been strongly criticized as unworkable. (Matthews, Robert, New Scientist, July, 1997, pp. 26-27.)